Trial of Skill
The Jedi is forced to rely on their potential alone - their Force prowess and ability with a lightsaber. The individual is forced to master themselves and not allow outside interference to cloud their vision and mind. The individual is expected to face an adversary be it the Battlemaster, the Grandmaster, their Master or a simulacrum of a Sith or an ally in a duel and to hold their own against their adversary. Their perception and environment would be altered through simulation or through the use of the Force, forcing the Padawan to master their conscious to hold their own.
Typically environmental changes could involve tiles disappearing, unequal ground randomly or even random walls appearing. The difficulty of the test would cause many Padawans to give into their anger due to the frustration of being unable to react how they normally would - making them fail their test. Defeating a tough adversary outside of the trial could allow their Jedi Master to request the Padawan to pass the test, this however was a rare occurrence.
Trial of Courage
The Jedi is forced to pursue a test of their courage - the most important thing that made a Jedi rise above was their courageous acts. The individual would be forced to complete a task that would be regarded as courageous - squandering the attempts of a criminal organization by recovering vital data, to face a challenge they wouldn't normally face and conquer it, or even possibly through repeated courageous acts under their Jedi Master. While some might assume that facing a Dark Lord of the Sith is an easy way to pass this trial, that is an incorrect statement - very few Padawans would be capable of facing one and the mere act would be suicidal and lead to the failure of their trials.
This is one of the most notably difficult trials to accomplish, but however is the most rewarding as it is capable of allowing the Padawan to witness their full potential. Courage is however not suicidal attempts at trying to impress the Council through acts that would be questionable to even some Jedi Knights.
Trial of the Flesh
The Jedi is forced to endure a hardship - be it physical pain, mental pain, emotional pain, loss or separation from their Jedi Master at the end of their apprenticeship. The individual would be forced to suffer, to experience something horrific and overcome it - while some may assume the separation of the Jedi Master and his Padawan isn't horrific, the emotional stress of leaving someone they have had to rely on forever is the hardship. Losing a limb is not the only way to conquer this trial, be it returning to their homeplanet to test their ability to conquer any emotional pain or possibly being forced to endure mental or poison-induced torture, the possibilities of conquering this challenge are endless.
This is another difficult trials due to accomplish due to the possibility of edging towards the dark side and those who are strong enough to conquer this trial are closer to achieving Knighthood. Recklessness is however not rewarded as the individual was not thinking clearly - this can however be overlooked should their Jedi Master be able to change the Council's opinion, this is rare however.
Trial of the Spirit
The Jedi is forced to face the mirror - looking inwards to find and face their own darkness. The individual would be forced to endure a mental trance that would require no physical movement, however the Padawan must fight their inner fears and demons to conquer this trial. The Padawan must write a script of what will transpire during their inner journey - a Jedi Master would be there to guide the Padawan back when the Padawan passed their least desired thoughts. This is the most personal journey a Padawan can endure and can be extremely dangerous - which no master can dictate.
This trial is the hardest on the Padawan's mind - the possibility of awaking from the trance was extremely common would cause the failure of the trial and had a high possibility of breaking their mind. Those who surpass this trial will have the necessary knowledge of how to fight back their demons and fears, should they rise again - the ability to conquer fear is considered a great feat among Jedi.
Trial of Insight
The Jedi is forced to face what is underneath the veil - to see through the illusions placed before them and to find the truth. The individual would be forced to use the Force to witness what an adversary was beneath their veil - be it a Sith or a common thief, every individual they would be forced to face would be hiding underneath lies to shield their insecurities. It is up to the Jedi to seek the truth behind the questions and they would not be allowed to know about this Trial, other than this is the final one.
This trial is the most difficult due to lack of knowledge - the Jedi would be forced to confront a situation where they would require the Force to act as their sight and not their own eyes. The trial is meant to disarm the illusion that Jedi are more superior and to allow the Jedi to accept that everyone is equal, regardless of their Force-sensitivity or species. Once this trial is completed, the Jedi is prepared for Knighthood.
This is the final step before a Jedi can advance to the rank of Jedi Knight, completing their Padawan training. The Jedi would enter a darkened room surrounded by the Jedi Council and kneel before the Grandmaster - the Grandmaster would then say the Jedi Code and cut off the 'Padawan Braid' or 'Silkabead Braid' - promoting them to the rank of Jedi Knight. This ceremony is to prove that the Padawan is responsible for their actions and will be capable of representing the Jedi Order on their own.
The separation between Jedi Master and Padawan occurs at this time and can be a very emotional moment - however should the Jedi be trained to hold their emotions, they will pass the Trial of the Flesh at this moment in time. The Jedi is now mature enough to pursue their own destiny that the Force has paved for them.